JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan <p><strong>Journal of Education &amp; Humanities Research (JEHR) is the official Journal of Institute of Education and Research University of Balochistan Quetta. JEHR is an academic journal which gains a fame in Pakistan, Asia and opens to the entire world. JEHR is a biannual and was published its first issue in 2016. The primary aim of journal is to motivate, encourage and ultimately coordinate research in all areas of education and social sciences.</strong></p> <p>I<strong>t promotes quality by providing a place for academicians, teachers, practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and students to publish significant empirical and conceptual research works to promote research activities globally.</strong></p> <p><strong>JEHR accepts qualitative and quantitative research paper, critical essay writing, thesis abstract, book reviews and so on. It publishes double blind peer reviewed scholarly research in the field of Education and social sciences such as Media and Journalism, Gender Development Studies, History, International Relation, Psychology, Philosophy, Islamic Studies, Fine Arts, Area Study and disaster management etc. The Journal invites scholars, academicians, Policy Makers &amp; independent scholars to contribute their research articles. This Journal is refereed scholarly journal, committed to consider original and unpublished scholarly critiques, theoretical, conceptual and research articles that contribute to the understanding of issues and problems in the field of Education, Social Sciences and other related disciplines in order to promote a debate and dialogue among them. The paper submitted will be reviewed by technical committees/ desk reviewers of journal. The articles should meet the criteria of JEHR. Documents should follow the style of the journal and are subject to review and editing.</strong></p> en-US (Dr Abdul Nasir Kiazai) (Mr. Yasir Hameed Ansari) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Managing Basic Education for Safety and Security in Nigeria <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The main&nbsp;objective&nbsp;of this research was to determine the effect of managing basic education on safety and security. A total of 761 participants were proportionally selected in each States in North-west zone, Nigeria. The findings revealed that conducive learning environment, prevention of child abuse and supervision of learners’ activities enhance safety and security of public primary schools.&nbsp;Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Therefore, it was recommended that school managers should&nbsp;endeavor&nbsp;to provide conducive learning environment&nbsp;so as to increases learners’ attention, promotes meaningful learning experiences. Also, school managers should strive to prevent child abuse so as to help lower a child’s risk of having learning, emotional and social issues in life, and promote the well-being of children. Furthermore, &nbsp;supervision of learners’ activities should be done frequently in order to provide a guide to learners’ development, help teacher to ensure effective classroom classroom management, create physical, social and psychological climate or environment as well as prevent the occurrence of problem behaviours towards effective safety and security.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Nimota jibola Kadir Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Tourism Cooperation of BCIM Countries give Awareness about Education and good Lifestyle <p>With the deepening of economic cooperation between Bangladesh, China, India and Myanmar, the level of tourism cooperation in the region is gradually improving. In order to further build a regional tourism community in the post-epidemic era, it is necessary to make a global and holistic analysis of the spatial layout of tourism in the region. Combining the perspectives of geographical space, economic drive and social mobility, this paper puts forward that tourism resources, tourism industry, the development degree of tourist destinations and tourist sources are the four core elements that affect the spatial layout of regional tourism. Based on this, the overall spatial layout of tourism cooperation between Bangladesh, China, India and Myanmar is constructed from the micro and macro levels, namely, the micro layout with urban units as the core and the macro system with inter-city networks as the center. By 2020, the micro-layout of the four regions is as follows: the dispersed structure of Yunnan Province, China, centered on central Yunnan (Kunming-Yuxi), northwest Yunnan (Tengchong-Dali-Lijiang-Shangri-La) and south Yunnan (Jinghong-Mengla); The northeast of India has Kolkata as the main core, and Gaya in Bihar and Guwahati in Assam as the sub-core. Bangladesh's dual-core structure centered on the capital Dhaka and Chittagong; Myanmar's axis structure with "Yangon-Mandalay" as the core axis. The micro layout centered on urban unit provides the basic unit for the macro system at the regional level, which makes the tourism spatial layout of Bangladesh, China, India and Myanmar show the following characteristics: two mature tourism interactive networks, India-Bangladesh and China-Myanmar, are the central circle, and several secondary tourism interactive spaces, such as China, India, China, Bangladesh and India and Myanmar, are its organic components and important supplements. Finally, this paper also provides policy suggestions for optimizing the spatial layout of Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar tourism cooperation from the perspectives of security governance, facilities upgrading and China-India cooperation.</p> He Hongmei , Huang Shishun, Kamran Taj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Digitalization of Education in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Benefits & Challenges <p><em>Digitalisation of education is a concept adopted to ensure the innovative incorporation of modern technology and digital tools to assist the progress of teaching and learning, and to create more rooms for remote learning. In attempt to unveil its benefits and challenges, this paper examined the digitalisation of education in Nigerian secondary schools. In this paper, the concepts of education and secondary education as embedded, digitalisation and digitalisation of education were examined. Looking at the empowerment brought by digital education system through its benefits and/or advantages, the paper x-rayed the importance and challenges facing digitalisation of education in Nigerian secondary schools which could hindered Nigerian students to be more innovative globally. This paper made recommendations among which are that, schools should implement blended and remote learning to allow students learn both online and offline on their own, and teachers, parents and school Guidance and counselors should be more vigilant in monitoring the students when they have access to computers or internet to avoid going to pornographic sites or other sites that may be harmful to their learning. Government should also collaborate with internet, digital, and telecommunications service providers to ensure that ICT infrastructure, such as internet broad bands and network devices, is available and in good working order to support the digitalisation of teaching and learning at all levels and not only at secondary school level.</em></p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Digitalisation, Digitalisation of Education, Nigerian Secondary Schools</p> Isiaka Adeniran Akinyemi, Lilian Ijeoma Amaechi, Lawrencia Chinyeaka Etoh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Challenges Professors/Lecturers Face in Public Sector Universities of Balochistan, Pakistan <p>This study focuses on the challenged professors/lecturers face in public sector universities of Balochistan. The main objectives of the study were to identify the main challenges and factors influencing on the performance of the professors. The nature of the study was quantitative and its population was 09 public sector universities. Simple random technique was adopted for sampling and therefore, 04 universities were selected for the study. Total sample size comprised on 105 professors and lecturers. A questionnaire was designed as a research instrument. The required data was collected through google. The obtained data was analyzed through SPSS. Main findings of the study were medium of instruction, workload, unconducive working environment, differences in lifestyle, stress, medical facilities, lack of recreational opportunities, absence of standard schools and proper accommodation. Few recommendations were suggested.</p> Nosheen Kanwal, Mohabat Khan, Ajaz Shaheen Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Female’s Economic Empowerment: The Role of NGOSs in Balochistan <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>The study in the hand focused on the role of NGOs in the Economic Empowerment of Women in Balochistan. For the purpose, research was conducted in three divisions of Balochistan. Mix method of research was applied and multistage sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample. A sample of 450 respondents was selected from the selected population. The data was gathered through questionnaire and interview schedule and was analyzed using </em><em>SPSS. ANOVA (DMRT) tests was applied to pairwise comparisons based on (p&lt;0.05). Results depict that (60.4%) of the respondents belonged to 36 to 45 age categories. More than half (53.3%) of the respondents were illiterate .Significant variations were found during the hypotheses testing. It was found that the role of NGOs in women empowerment is going well somehow they face many changes in this regard. Based on the finding.&nbsp; It is suggested that NGOs such as BRSP, WESS and SPO management should be delivering the more reliable educational, social, community development and health amenities for females in three zones of the province so as to improve the socio-economic conditions of the rural masses and make the rural women more self-reliant.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>women, Economic empowerment, gender, NGOs, Balochistan </em></p> Mohammad Zakir, Moahammad Alam Tareen Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Army Burn Hall Institutions - A Study Of Managerial And Pedagogical Practices <p><em>Effective teaching is a skill that can make or shake a pupil &nbsp;both in personality as well as academically. The display of effective and usefull teaching includes those skills, capabilities and abilities that eventually lead to an enabling, inclusive, welcoming and conducive environment for learners. When identifying the notion of innovative managerial and pedagogical practices, it is critical to grasp what it means; it refers to attempts to initiate reform within the classroom as well as the optimum use and inclusion of technical resources that have sparked the development of the modern time information society. Audio-visual technology, computers, and other communication tools have steadily found their place within the walls of educational institutions and hence expediting the process of bringing innovative changes in pedagogical practice, keeping pace with the advancements of the age. The study attempted to analyze the current managerial and pedagogical practices of Army Burn Hall Institutions. The study also focuses on the managerial practices in the light of four educational leadership theories i.e., facilitative leadership, transformational leadership, instructional leadership and administrative leadership theories.</em></p> safdar abbas, Muhammad Iqbal Majoka Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Principals’ Administrative Leadership Abilities to Enhance Quality Education in Province of Sindh <p>The main objective for &nbsp;this research was to assess the impact of principals’ administrative leadership abilities to enhance quality education in colleges of Sindh province. Quantitative research method was used in this study. Questionnaire was designed and distributed to the principals. Total size of the sample was 300. 150 were from each sector public and private. Out of that 220 were male and 80 were female college principals. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. To describe the statistics, frequencies and percentages are presented in tabular form. For statistical and group involvement, the t-test was used. For item-by-item analyses of categorical data in the questionnaire, the researcher utilized the chi-test.. The findings of the study revealed that leadership has played a key role in the effective implementation of any organization and directly affects the performance and growth of staff. Overall, the principals of the public and private sectors do not show any differences in opinion, but when other administrative aspects were analyzed individually, there was a difference of opinion. In the case of college management staff management, here was the difference of opinion received based on gender and institution.</p> Ali Murad Soomro; Muhammad Akhtar, Naila Parveen Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Predictive Power of Core Self-Evaluation on Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Evidence from Health Practitioners <p><em>In the present situation, developing commitment among employees is a need to enhance the organizations’ performance and profit.&nbsp;</em><em>The present study examines the role of core self-evaluation (CSE) on organizational commitment (OC) among health practitioners or medical doctors of Sindh, Pakistan. The study is based on quantitative methods, which collected cross-sectional data through a questionnaire. The study applied a random sampling technique and successfully managed the response from 404 respondents, with a response rate of 43.6%. The study uses a structural equation model to confirm the hypothesized relationships through AMOS. The SEM results demonstrate a significant positive effect of self-esteem (SES) and self-efficacy (SE) on affective commitment (AF), continuous commitment (CC) and normative commitment (NC).Moreover, locus of control (LoC) significantly and positively effect on AC but not CC and NC. Finally, emotional stability (ES) has appeared as an effective and positive predictor of AC and insignificant of CC and NC. The study's findings would support developing commitment among the employees by improving SES, SE, LoC and ES. Besides, the results of the investigation would contribute to the literature.</em></p> Abdul Wahid Zehri, Naimatullah , Mohammed Bux Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Overcoming the Challenges of Recruitment and Retention of Quality Teachers in Private Colleges of Pakistan <p>Private Colleges face enormous challenges to hire and retain quality teachers for the better students’ learning outcomes. To overcome, such challenges various strategies are employed by the college management. Current study is an effort to investigate the strategies adopted by the college management in the recruitment and retention of quality teachers. &nbsp;The context of the study was two Private Colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. Research design employed to carry out this study was Sequential mixed method exploratory case study. Two Semi-structured interviews were conducted of the selected college principals. Survey questionnaires were administered to the college teachers. Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis and quantitative data was analyzed through an online web application.&nbsp;</p> <p>The strategies adopted for the recruitment were vacancy announcement in the newspapers and the usage of personal contacts. For quality teachers’ retention support system provision, professional development opportunities, provision of benefits and facility were found effective strategies employed by the college management.</p> Palwasha Tareen; Zualfiqar Ali, Saud Al Taj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Poverty: An Indicator of Poor-Performing Socioeconomic System In A Region <p>Policies designed for eradication of poverty have not made much progress in most of the developing countries. A plausible reason for policies failure is that these policies were developed with a narrow view of poverty, overlooking that low financial income is an indicator of poverty and not the poverty itself. The paper argues that poverty is basically an outcome of low performance of socioeconomic systems in a region. It is reasoned that a region will not be able to get out of poverty unless its social system is developed, which in turn should encourage a better functioning economic system. Conversely, this translates into the cost of sacrificing certain policy-relevant properties, such as being unable to break the measure down by dimensions to understand their contribution to global poverty. In addition, multifaceted socioeconomic inequality into a poverty measure does not necessarily create an appropriate framework for apprehending inequality in poverty across population subgroups, which is decisive for effective strategy. The strategy for examining socio-economic performance requires an acceptable method of classifying the poor and measuring socio-economic inequities.</p> Faiza Akhtar, Safdar Shahkhan, Rahat Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Role of Life Skills Education in Empowering Secondary School Students: An Explanatory Study <p>Life skills Education enables secondary students to understand critical situations intelligently and wisely and behave in a logical way to solve life-related problems (Mulyadi, Suryadi, &amp; Aliyyah, 2020; Life Skills-Based Education, 2014). The study intended to investigate the extent to which secondary school students possess life skills and explore gender-wise (male/female) and school-wise (public/private) differences among secondary school students about life skills development. The study was quantitative following the explanatory research method. A total of 220 secondary school students were selected as a sample for the study using a proportionate sampling technique. To collect data a structured questionnaire was employed. The data analysis illustrated the positive perception of most of the participants (male/female) about having essential life skills. However, a significant difference was observed between the perception of female and male students regarding life skills development among them. This was also concluded that students of private schools have a strong perception about possessing essential life skills as compared to the students of public schools. So, it is recommended to arrange equal learning opportunities for both male/female students in private/public schools to promote essential life skills among young students.</p> Fatima Maqsood, Samina Malik, Nabi Bux Jumani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Perceptions about Teaching Effectiveness and Learner’s Achievement in Online Oral Communication Classes <p>The COVID-19 epidemic has spread throughout the world and has had a significant impact on education. As the global pandemic introduced new ways of imparting knowledge and broaden the scope of education from face-to-face to virtual settings due to social distancing. Hence, online learning has brought new teaching pedagogies and methodologies to integrate language skills in learners. Therefore, communication and English language skills teaching practices and student achievement in Pakistani context needs to be explored. Consequently, the present study aims to explore the perceptions of undergraduate students towards teaching effectiveness and learner’s achievement in online oral communication skills in classes. For this purpose, a qualitative case study has been undertaken and data has been collected using purposive homogenous sampling from 15 students enrolled in BS English oral communication course by using semi-structured interviews within a public sector university. The collected data has been coded and analyzed using Saldana’s model of thematic analysis. The findings suggest that although there are advantages and disadvantages virtual and traditional language teaching and acquisition of speaking skills. Yet, speaking skills can be effectively taught virtually through interactive lessons, activities and continuous assessment that promotes learning achievement for future. The present results are effective for language teachers, language centers, language learners and institutions for developing and designing effective online courses for learning different skills of English language.&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Hassan Abbasi, Mr Wasif, Ms Moomal, Maryam Javed Maryam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Heads’ Leadership Style and Performance Appraisal Matter to Enhance the Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers <p>Secondary school education has main contribution for the socio-economic development of the countries. The major objective of this study was to determine the impact of heads’ leadership styles and performance appraisal on job satisfaction. The study was based on quantitative and cross-sectional research design. For the delimitation of the population 427 public secondary school teachers were administered as sample of this research from Lahore while simple random sampling technique was used. Research data was collected from standardized questionnaire through survey method. SPSS software was computed to analyze the proposed research questions in this study. The results of this research revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship of heads’ leadership styles and performance appraisal with job satisfaction. Moreover, leadership styles have more significant effect as compare performance appraisal towards job satisfaction. Significantly, this research has advantage for the adaptation of innovative approaches for the enhancement of job satisfaction of teachers.</p> Muhammad Hamza Farooq; Muhammad Aamir Hashmi, Muhammad Naveed Jabbar, Shafeeq Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Teachers’ Perceptions about Young Learners Reediness for Next Grade: A Scenario of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan <p>This research aims to explore the perceptions of preschool teachers about their young learners’ readiness for elementary level. The study was quantitative in nature. A self-developed questionnaire was used. 278 teachers were selected by applying proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Data were analyzed by applying Descriptive and inferential statistics .It was revealed by the results that there was consistency among ECE teachers’ perceptions about preschoolers’ readiness. Teachers had knowledge regarding main focus of pre-school education, to prepare children for elementary education level. Preschoolers’ readiness is a progression which supports them to progress in a variety of learning areas and become all-rounders. This development focuses on physical, personal-social and emotional development, language and literacy development, Basic mathematical concept, health and hygiene, creative art and understanding the world. This empirical study providing the data that conducive learning environment can accelerate early years learning to enhance children accomplishments in life.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aroona Hashmi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Effect of Home and Family Related Factors on Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students <p>The purpose of this study was to explore home/family and study related factors and their effect on the students’ academic achievement. This study was based on the descriptive research design in which survey method was used. The population of this study was all students enrolled in 10<sup>th</sup> in Secondary Schools under the Lahore Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. The sample of this study was 2010 10<sup>th</sup> grade students form 60 public secondary schools. The data was collected through questionnaires for exploring the effect of home and family related factors on the students’ academic achievement in Board of Intermediate and Secondary School Examination. For analyzing the data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The findings showed that home and family related factors had significant effect on the students’ academic achievement at secondary school level. Only one aspect of home and family i.e. type of accommodation had no significant effect on students’ academic achievement. This study suggested that school administrators who conducted BISE exams and policy makers should also focus on different contextual factors for improving students’ academic achievement</p> Ayesha Zulfiqar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Study of Principals and Vice Principals in the Context of Job Satisfaction Level at Public Sector Colleges of Lahore <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The general purpose of the study is to explore job satisfaction level of principals and vice principals at public sector colleges of Lahore. The nature of the study is descriptive in nature. Cross-sectional survey research design is applied fir this study. Sample of the study includes 40 principals of public sector colleges of Lahore. To measure the job satisfaction level among college principals a questionnaire is used to collect the mandatory information. The questionnaire is comprised of the items related to the job satisfaction level of principals of public sector colleges of Lahore. The data produced by the instrument is tabulated and analyzed through the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). According to the research questions, descriptive statistical techniques are applied and simple frequencies are calculated. The results of this study are showed that most of the principals and vice principals of public sector colleges are satisfied with their nature of job.</p> Muhammad Kamran Kamran; Muhammad Aslam, Zahid Muhammad Sharif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Education & Humanities Research, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200