Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta <p><em>Journal of Education &amp; Humanities Research (JEHR) is the official Journal of Institute of Education and Research University of Balochistan Quetta. JEHR is an academic journal which gains a fame in Pakistan, Asia and opens to the entire world. JEHR is a biannual and was published its first issue in 2016. The primary aim of journal is to motivate, encourage and ultimately coordinate research in all areas of education and social sciences.</em></p> <p><em>It promotes quality by providing a place for academicians, teachers, practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and students to publish significant empirical and conceptual research works to promote research activities globally.</em></p> <p><em>JEHR accepts qualitative and quantitative research paper, critical essay writing, thesis abstract, book reviews and so on. It publishes double blind peer reviewed scholarly research in the field of Education and social sciences such as Media and Journalism, Gender Development Studies, History, International Relation, Psychology, Philosophy, Islamic Studies, Fine Arts, Area Study and disaster management etc. The Journal invites scholars, academicians, Policy Makers &amp; independent scholars to contribute their research articles. This Journal is refereed scholarly journal, committed to consider original and unpublished scholarly critiques, theoretical, conceptual and research articles that contribute to the understanding of issues and problems in the field of Education, Social Sciences and other related disciplines in order to promote a debate and dialogue among them. The paper submitted will be reviewed by technical committees/ desk reviewers of journal. The articles should meet the criteria of JEHR. Documents should follow the style of the journal and are subject to review and editing.</em></p> Institute of Education and Research University of Balochistan Quetta en-US Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2415-2366 Understanding Maritime Military Operations within the Framework of International Law and Education <p><em>Maritime military activities are an important part of maritime activities between countries. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has established a standardized mechanism for the settlement of maritime disputes between countries, but it has not clearly defined maritime military activities, and the ambiguity of this issue has become a legacy of the Convention. In the existing international judicial practice, the criteria for judging military activities are inconsistent, and there have been many disputes in related maritime disputes, reflecting the realistic dilemma in the identification of military activities. Today, when high and new technologies are continuously put into marine activities, the confusion between military activities and related marine activities has posed a great challenge to this vague provision. Combined with the existing cases of international judicial practice, when identifying maritime military activities, the regional situation and background at the time of the incident should be taken into consideration, and attention should be paid to whether the behavior mode exceeds the principle of “necessary and reasonable”, and the civil subject and the military-related subject should be distinguished at the object level.</em></p> Luo Fang He Haiyang Muhammad Kamran Taj Saud Al Taj Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 01 23 Academic Experiences and Well-being during COVID-19: A Comparative Study between the Students with and without Special Needs <p>COVID-19 affected not only students’ academic experiences but also their emotional, psychological, and mental growth and well-being. Although all the students were affected by it, those with disabilities were more vulnerable due to their special needs. Using the Well-being of Children in Lockdown (WCL) scale with 6 factors and 22 items, this study compared the well-being of the students with and without special needs in Pakistan. Data was collected from 606 elementary-level students belonging to special and regular schools. The findings showed that out of six factors, low scores were reported for two (physical activity, and playful and creative activities), average for three (feelings, addictions, and academic aspects), and high scores were reported for one factor (routine). It appears that both groups were hit harder emotionally and psychologically. When the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences in academic aspects and routine; however, in other factors and overall well-being, there were statistically significant differences with the students with special needs being affected more by the pandemic. The study suggests providing extra support and care for students with special needs to help them overcome different kinds of stresses and vulnerabilities. Such measures will also help move towards a more socially-just and equal society.</p> Qurratulain Rehan Muhammad Abid Malik Tooba Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 24 37 Implications of ChatGPT: Insights from the Higher Education of Pakistan <p>The Higher Education (HE) of Pakistan, despite all technological challenges in the region, demonstrated improved openness towards accepting technology in the post-COVID era and should be included in forming the global consensus on the educational impact of ChatGPT. This mixed-method research provides insights on the usability patterns, possibilities to advance pedagogy, and limitations presented by ChatGPT across the disciplines of Social Sciences, Humanities, Pharmacy, and Business Education at a renowned private university in Pakistan. Findings of this study indicate the spectrum of possibilities with ChatGPT and potential challenges pertaining to academic integrity, users’ social competence, and reliability and accuracy of information. &nbsp;Based on the analysis of outcome, this study also suggests a way forward through actionable recommendations to facilitate ethical use of ChatGPT. Lastly, this study identifies significant perspectives for future research to wholesomely understand the implications of ChatGPT on the HE of Pakistan.</p> Mehwish Raza Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 38 46 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Trade Credit: Evidence from Listed Non-Financial firms in Pakistan Stock Exchange <p><em>This study explores the relationship among Corporate Social Responsibility and Trade credit of listed non-financial firms of Pakistan. This study have used a sample of 40 listed non­financial firms in Pakistan for analysis. Data is extracted from annual reports of firms for year 2012 to 2020 and numerous examination techniques like descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, regression and Hausman test have been performed on the data. The study finds significant association of trade credit with corporate social responsibility which indicates that firms that are indulged more in corporate social responsibility activities will have more dependence on trade credit. Firm age, Firm size and financial leverage have also found to have significant impact on trade credit. This indicates that older firms having strong reputation have more accessibility to trade credit, trade credit reliance also increases with the increase in firm size and financial leverage. Market capitalization has found to be insignificantly impacting trade credit. This study is significant as fewer studies have been found in context of Pakistan. This study aids in managerial decisions for investors and regulatory bodies.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Corporate Social Responsibility, Trade credit, Firm Age, Firm Size, Market capitalization, Financial leverage, Listed non-financial firms, Pakistan</p> Shahzad Butt Alina Sajjad Muhammad Awais Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 47 61 Profiling the Factors affecting the Social Support and Academic Resilience of Undergraduate University Students <p><em>This current research focused on the role of background factors which influence social support and academic resilience traits among university students. Social support mitigates the stressful academic situations for students and academic resilience ensure efficient completion of academic tasks despite of difficulties faced by them. The cross-sectional survey design was used to collect responses from participants on adapted scales of social support and academic resilience. The data were collected from university students (n=600). The reliability and validity of adapted scales were ensured. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference among social support and academic resilience based on their gender, age, enrolled program, semester, job status and locale. However, a significant difference in informational support was found among students based on their discipline. The findings further identified that students from sciences received better informational support as compared to students from other disciplines. This infers that background factors influence students’ social support and academic resilience as several social and personal factors contribute to students’ motivation to complete their study program.</em></p> Tooba Saleem Aafia Zia Nasir Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 62 80 Cultural Identity and Assimilation of South Asian Diaspora in Host Country: A Critical Study of Monica Ali’s Brick Lane <p><em>Monica Ali's novel Brick Lane explores the complex theme of assimilation of characters in a host country, focusing on the experiences of the Bangladeshi protagonist, Nazneen, as she navigates life in East London. Through Nazneen's experiences, Ali explores the tension between preserving one's cultural heritage and adapting to a new environment. The backdrop of Brick Lane, a vibrant and diverse neighborhood in London, provides a rich tapestry of cultures and characters. Through Nazneen's interactions with her neighbors, coworkers, and friends, the novel showcases the challenges and rewards of assimilation. It highlights the importance of community and the role it plays in the integration process. Throughout the narrative, Monica Ali skillfully portrays the complexities of assimilation. She depicts the clash of cultures, the struggle for identity, and the desire for acceptance. As Nazneen embraces elements of British culture while holding onto her Bangladeshi heritage, readers witness the intricate dance of assimilation in a multicultural society. Brick Lane offers a poignant exploration of the assimilation of characters in a host country, using the character of Nazneen as a lens through which to examine this process. It underscores the resilience of immigrants, the evolution of personal identity, and the power of community in the face of cultural change. The aim is to further examine the theme of cultural identity as shown in Ali's novel, while also placing it within the framework of Bhabha's theories on cultural identity. Furthermore, this analysis is grounded in the perspective of certain cultural theorists who posit that the connection between individuals and their surroundings is not inherently inherent, but rather formed and reformed through a multitude of social connections and their interplay in both ordinary conversations and exceptional circumstances, such as displacement, migration, and forced removal.</em></p> Malik Jawed Ahmed Khan Waheed Ahmed Safdar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 81 91 Drawing A Comparison of Research Facilities In Higher Education Institution of Quetta <p><em>The Higher Education Institutions (HEIs ) in Pakistan have faced an immense financial crunch over the last few years, especially in the Province of Balochistan. The HEIs located in Quetta also face the same predicament in particular. This situation impacted the overall research culture of the HEIs. The objective of the current study is to explore the availability of research facilities in HEIs and draw a comparison regarding research facilities available in HEIs’ of Quetta. The comparison is made based on available research-related resources for researchers in the Faculty of Science and Arts. The design of the current study was Descriptive research. The survey research method was adopted to compile the current study. A number of 533 researchers both research supervisors and research scholars were participants in the study. A multistage sampling technique was adopted to select the participants for the current study. A questionnaire was utilized to collect the responses of the respondents, having close-ended questions measured by using a 5-point Likert scale. The finding of the study reveals that the majority of the researchers are not satisfied with the available research resources in the survey HEIs. Although, the financial strains abstain</em></p> Abdul Qadoos Malik Amer Atta Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 92 100 A Study of Pakistani Students’ Perceptions of Emotional Intelligence at the University Level <p><em>Emotional intelligence is getting popular in western society and is considered to be more important than general IQ to get later employment and success in life. However, our school system still focuses only on inculcating the skills related to high IQ or high scores. The study aimed to examine Pakistani university students' views towards emotional intelligence and find the differences in their perceptions of emotional intelligence based on their demographic variables. A survey was conducted to collect the related information. It was quantitative research. A 5-point Likert scale was developed to collect data from students belonging to different universities in Karachi. A sample of 214 students was selected on a random basis from different disciplines and programs. Data frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze data. The result showed no significant difference in emotional intelligence scores based on age, degree program, or harassment or bullying experience. However, a significant difference in empathy was found based on the gender of respondents. Further, the results showed students' awareness regarding emotional intelligence and its significance for future success and believed that emotionally intelligent individuals easily adjust to any new situation.</em></p> Afshan Qadir AKHTAR KANG Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 101 113 Life satisfaction and Depression among Working and non-Working Women of Quetta City <p><em> Aim of the present study was to explore the level of Depression and Life Satisfaction among working non-working women of Quetta city. Total sample of the study consist of 100 females including (n=50) working women and (n=50) non-workingwomen. Working women were selected from various Universities of Quetta city, while non-working women were from homes. Cross Sectional research design was applied whereas convenient sampling technique was used for data the collection. Measures were used for this research a) Demographic information form b)Satisfaction with life urdu translated scale (SWLS) developed by Denier et.,al (1985).c) Siddiqui Shah depression inventory (SSDS) developed by Salma Siddiqui (1992)were administered. For data analysis descriptive statistic techniques, correlation and regression method were applied to investigate the significant difference between depression and life satisfaction among working and non-working women of Quetta city. Results indicate that depression (53.8) and life satisfaction (70.6) is highly significant in working women compare to non-working women whereas depression is (25.8) and life satisfaction is (13.4) significant P value is (p&lt;0.001). Result showed that working women are satisfied with their life and less depressive then non-working women.</em></p> Ayesha Zahid Mehreen Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 114 119 Training Need Analysis of University Teachers for Creative Teaching <p><em>Creative teaching is an art (Craft, 2011). There is an increasing awareness of the importance of fostering creativity in higher education. The rationale of the study was to investigate the overall training needs of creative teaching among university teachers in AJ&amp;K. To understand the perspectives of university teachers regarding the training needs for creative teaching interviews were taken from faculty members in one institution of higher education. There were 15 faculty members from whom information regarding training needs for creative teaching was collected. The findings of the study are based upon data analysis of interviews conducted with faculty members. Findings revealed that to make teaching more creative there is a need for the latest technologies, innovative teaching methodologies, and also the use of ICT in the classroom. The study concluded that there is a lack of training in higher education in AJ&amp;K. Therefore there is a need of initiating training in AJ&amp;K universities for achieving the fruitful results of teaching.</em></p> Rabia Khurshid Asma Zia Salma Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 120 130 A Case Study on Distance Learning Challenges and Opportunities Facing Learners' of virtual University of Pakistan Karachi Chapter <p><em>The Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP) is used as an example in this research to evaluate the potential and difficulties of remote education. The research investigates the critical elements impacting the efficacy of remote education programmes by using a case study approach to the special setting of VUP. Some of the difficulties VUP encounters include students, faculty teaching, assessment, and evaluation. In this study, these difficulties are noted and examined. The paper also emphasises the innovation and opportunities that distance education offers, such as flexible learning pathways, collaborative learning, the incorporation of emerging technologies, access to high-quality education in remote areas, and opportunities for lifelong learners to advance their careers. The experiences and practises at VUP are examined using primary data and literature, and suggestions are made for resolving problems and maximising the advantages of distant learning. Important components of remote education policy and practise include collaborative efforts, learning-centered methodologies, and the use of cutting-edge technology. The results of this research will be useful to educational institutions and policymakers in order to improve the quality and accessibility of remote education programmes. A particular context is necessary to understand the benefits and difficulties of distant learning.</em></p> Hina Hahmi S.M. Irfan Sadia Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 131 151 A Study On Exploring the Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Female Teachers at Primary Level of Education in Nushki District of Baluchistan. <p><em>Primary education is the basic education. It is the preparation for furfure education and without a teacher this preparation in formal and a great way is not possible. Thus, primary education needs more attention and the satisfaction of primary teachers is one of the significant elements of this. Therefore, this study focused on the job satisfaction of female primary teachers in Nushki district of Baluchistan. There are many factors that affecting the job satisfaction of female teachers at primary level but this study focuses on these three factors: financial benefit, social benefit and workplace environment. The study's population was drawn from all of Nushki City's government girl's schools. 210 teachers and 20 schools made up the sample, which was chosen using a straightforward random sampling method. Quantitative data was gathered using a self-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale. With the aid of SPSS, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and Pearson correlation were utilized to analyze quantitative data. The relationship between job satisfaction and its factors —financial benefits, social benefits, and work environment—was measured using correlation. The frequency and percentage were utilized to determine the teachers' level of satisfaction. The findings showed that the majority of the female primary teachers in the Nushki district were happy in their positions. They also showed that the workplace environment and financial benefits had an impact on their job satisfaction, while social benefits had no bearing at all.</em></p> Gul Bano Sadia Suleman Khan Spozhmai Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Education And Humanities Research (JEHR), University of Balochistan, Quetta 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 16 2 152 169