JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan <p><strong>Journal of Education &amp; Humanities Research (JEHR) is the official Journal of Institute of Education and Research University of Balochistan Quetta. JEHR is an academic journal which gains a fame in Pakistan, Asia and opens to the entire world. JEHR is a biannual and was published its first issue in 2016. The primary aim of journal is to motivate, encourage and ultimately coordinate research in all areas of education and social sciences.</strong></p> <p>I<strong>t promotes quality by providing a place for academicians, teachers, practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and students to publish significant empirical and conceptual research works to promote research activities globally.</strong></p> <p><strong>JEHR accepts qualitative and quantitative research paper, critical essay writing, thesis abstract, book reviews and so on. It publishes double blind peer reviewed scholarly research in the field of Education and social sciences such as Media and Journalism, Gender Development Studies, History, International Relation, Psychology, Philosophy, Islamic Studies, Fine Arts, Area Study and disaster management etc. The Journal invites scholars, academicians, Policy Makers &amp; independent scholars to contribute their research articles. This Journal is refereed scholarly journal, committed to consider original and unpublished scholarly critiques, theoretical, conceptual and research articles that contribute to the understanding of issues and problems in the field of Education, Social Sciences and other related disciplines in order to promote a debate and dialogue among them. The paper submitted will be reviewed by technical committees/ desk reviewers of journal. The articles should meet the criteria of JEHR. Documents should follow the style of the journal and are subject to review and editing.</strong></p> Institute of Education and Research University of Balochistan Quetta en-US JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2415-2366 Educational Planners Comparative Analysis of Quality Teaching in Universities in Lagos State, Nigeria <p><em>This study examined the disparities in teaching quality at universities in Lagos State, Nigeria. With the use of a descriptive survey research methodology, one null hypothesis led this investigation. All 400 students from the seven institutions in Lagos State were included in this study's population (public and private). From among the five universities in Lagos State, one federal, one state, and one private university was chosen for the study. Using a multi-stage sampling technique (simple random, purposive, and disproportionate stratified sampling technique), 640 respondents were drawn from the three sample universities. Meanwhile, Quality Teaching Questionnaire (QTQ) was used to extract the required information from the respondents. To validate the instrument used for the study, a test retest method was employed through face and content approach. The instrument was determined to be reliable with a coefficient of 0.78. The data that was gathered was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The significance level for the hypotheses was set at 0.05. A significant difference in teaching quality was found across the institutions in Lagos State, according to the tested hypothesis (F (2, 584) = 5.0828, p.05). The study findings indicated variations in teaching standards among federal, state, and private universities in Lagos State. It was demonstrated that the utilization of various indicators of quality teaching, as presented in the research instrument, could lead to the anticipation and attainment of quality teaching in institutions. As a result, this study proposes several recommendations, including the establishment of a dedicated quality teaching unit or department within each institution by university administration, the National Universities Commission, and the Federal and State Ministries of Education. This would ensure the effective implementation of quality teaching practices.</em></p> GBESOEVI Emmanuel Semako JINADU, Oluwatosin Gabriel KOSHOEDO, Senapon Nugboyon GBENU, Jide Pius Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 01 10 Countering Violent Religious Extremism in Pakistan: Enforcing Legal framework <p>This paper examines the dynamics of Countering Violent Religious Extremism (CVRE) in Pakistan, with a focus on critical evaluation of legal framework for dealing with violent extremism and enforcement by police. It identifies gaps in the existing framework of laws and challenges in achieving the desired level of enforcement.</p> <p>Adopting qualitative research methods, research reports, journal articles, academic and practitioners works, relevant police incident reports were studied and analyzed to synthesize clear understanding of the dynamics and facets of religious extremist violence in Pakistan and crystalize the debate on religion and violence. The major legislative Acts and the Anti-terrorism Act 1997 were examined to study and point out the forms of extremist violent conduct adequately covered or otherwise by the existing laws.</p> <p>It argues, it’s imperative for Pakistan’s counterterrorism strategy to incorporate robust CVE and deradicalization measures. The existing legal framework includes several useful provisions to deal with religious extremism, yet it requires to be revisited to expand its reach and plugin the gaps. It further argues, over half a million police officers of Pakistan’s provincial and federal organizations are best placed to engage in a greater CVE role beyond the&nbsp; conventional role of prevention and detection of religious violence, extending to surveillance of potential violent extremists, monitoring of cyberspace, community policing engagements for building resilience against radicalization, deradicalization programs and most importantly achieving the requisite degree of enforcement of the legal framework and regulatory mechanism for a lasting and long-term solution to the menace of terrorism.</p> Abdul Khalique Shaikh Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 11 22 Teaching Electricity at Nigerian primary schools: Are there occasions when classroom practices are at dissonance with curriculum policy intentions?: Are there occasions when classroom practices are at dissonance with curriculum policy intentions? <p><em>The present study investigates the extent to which what was taught in the classroom conformed to the state standard.&nbsp; Specifically, the exploratory case study focuses on the discrepancies between the actual classroom practices and the policy intentions during the teaching of Basic Electricity in Nigerian primary schools.&nbsp; To achieve the objective of the study, five teachers were observed for three weeks during the teaching of Basic Electricity, a unit of content prescribed in the mandated science curriculum.&nbsp; Subsequently, these teachers were interviewed to collect information regarding the rationale for their classroom practices.&nbsp; Evidences from the classroom observation and documentary analysis of teachers’ lesson notes revealed the following discrepancies: variation with respect to (a) content coverage and sequence of content delivery (b) teachers and pupils’ activities (c) teaching approaches (d) learning and instructional materials and (e) assessment techniques.&nbsp; The rationale for the observed discrepancies as depicted by the data analysis include: teachers’ shallow understanding of curriculum content, fear of pupils engaging in dangerous experiments at home, abstractions of curriculum policy intentions, lack of professional development,</em> <em>teachers’ eagerness to complete the syllabus, &nbsp;influx of learners in primary schools, teachers’ financial constraint and lack of learning and instructional materials.&nbsp; Based on these findings, recommendations were made towards narrowing the gap between the actual classroom practices and the curriculum planners’ intentions.</em></p> Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon Jubril Busuyi Fakokunde Nimota Moromoke Raji Anthonia Ayobami Oyelade Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 23 39 Marxist Feminism, Education and Women’s Oppression: A Case Study of Malala Yousafzai’s ‘I am Malala <p>Marxist feminists draw similarities between capitalism and patriarchal social structure and condemn both on the basis <br>of their common principles which are, according to them, cause of exploitation and oppression of the weak. Post￾colonial era in Pakistan has witnessed publication of a number of works supporting Marxist feminism and this <br>research work explores Marxist feminism in one such work: ‘I am Malala’ by Malala Yousafzai. Technique of <br>qualitative content analysis was used to investigate causes of women’s oppression and illiteracy in the work, under <br>the framework of Marxist feminism. It was found that patriarchal social structure was the major cause of social, <br>psychological and economic oppression and low literacy of women in the autobiography. The research concludes <br>supporting Marxists view that women’s oppression and illiteracy is a social construct and through social evolution <br>women of Pakistan are likely going to be placed at the pivotal places of reproduction because of new social and <br>economic dynamics which will lead to elimination of their oppression and better literacy rate.</p> Masood Ahmad Ghani Rahman Safdar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 40 50 Role of Guidance and Counselling at High School Level in District Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab, Pakistan <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The study conducted in Dera Ghazi Khan aimed to evaluate the significance of guidance and counseling in secondary schools and its impact on the students. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a sample of 150 teachers and 250 students, and the data was collected using the Likert scale. The results showed that guidance and counseling facilities are highly essential for secondary level learners and have a significant impact on their decision making and ability to recognize and accept consequences. The study also found that every school should have a counseling and guidance committee, the head of the school should provide support, and guidance and counseling teachers should have relevant qualifications. The results of the study were agreed upon by a large percentage of teachers and students, with an average score of 4.48 and percentages ranging from 90-100%.</p> Muhammad Hashim Abdul Rahman Shahida Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 51 56 Media and Hybrid War: Political influence and Disinformation <p>The 21<sup>st</sup> century has seen an expansion of information communication. The Internet and its confluence with information technology have increased accessibility to media, especially social media. On the one hand, it has facilitated the people; on the other, it has created complexities in warfare because these modern media tools have become dangerous weapons for many states and non-state actors. Modern media tools have made it easier to launch online battles and influence events at national and global levels. The mode of war has seen a dramatic shift as media has entered the domain of warfare and become one of the main components of modern warfare. Manipulation of opinion through modern media tools has played a significant role in altering the outcomes. The Russian interference in the U.S. presidential election, the role of media in the French election, and Brexit show how media plays its role in changing perceptions. Some countries and non-state actors are employing media as an instrument of warfare for their political goals. Modern media tools have emerged as power instruments to influence a democratic process and promote negative propaganda to achieve the desired goals. The study aims to explore the role of media in hybrid warfare in a global context and examines emerging challenges of Media as an instrument of modern action against Pakistan arising from external and internal actors.</p> 1. Noor Ul Amin Kakar Babrak Niaz Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 57 64 Unraveling Identity in the American Diaspora: A Study of Ayad Akhtar's Homeland Elegies <p>This study delves into Ayad Akhtar's Homeland Elegies' complex exploration of identity within the American diaspora. This study sheds light on the fundamental relevance of culture and the damaging impacts of unhomeliness on immigrant personalities by exploring the difficulties of the characters in their search for identity within the diasporic situation of American society. Using postcolonial concepts, particularly Homi K. Bhabha's conceptions of 'Hybridity,' 'Ambivalence,' and 'Third Space,' this study applies textual analytic tools to closely examine the characters' problem of identity.</p> <p><em>Homeland Elegies</em> valiantly explores the enormous loss of culture and home that occurred in the aftermath of the horrific events of 9/11. Akhtar expertly weaves his personal and familial trauma into the story, creating a highly intimate and introspective work. The work is the author's powerful voice, advocating for Muslim rights and acceptance in America.</p> <p>This study contributes to a better understanding of the complicated processes within the American diaspora by unravelling the numerous layers of identity and diasporic experiences in <em>Homeland Elegies.</em> It reveals the nuanced ways in which cultural pressures, trauma, and the quest for belonging form the identities of people living in a foreign nation.</p> Suhail Ahmed Solangi Irfan Ali Soomro Muhammad Fayyaz Awan Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 65 74 Relationship between Environment and Organizational Structure: An Analytical Case Study of Allied Schools <p>The study is an evaluation of relationship in between organization’s task environment and its structure. The task environment tends to affect organizational structure and business strategies in multiple ways, however, the relationship is not constant and the magnitude may differ from case to case. To understand the dynamics of relationship, Mintzberg Model has been applied. This is qualitative research based on case study approach that provides a comprehensive analysis of Organizational Structure of &nbsp;Allied Schools in relationship to its task environment. All dimensions of environment, decision- making roles, key parts, coordinating mechanism, power and authorities, have been thoroughly discussed in context of Allied Schools. For data collection, only executives of higher echelon were engaged in discussions. The hypothesis testing provides mix trend in estimates of (Mis) Fit in between environment and structure &nbsp;of Allied Schools. The findings of the case study predict that decision making regarding Organizations Structure is not entirely dependent on its environment. There are other factors that make difference and it requires further probe and investigation.</p> <p>Key words: Organizational Structure, Task Environment, Coordinating mechanisms.</p> Muhammad Waqas Ajmal Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 75 89 A Study of School Leaders’ Perceptions about the Effectiveness of Continuing Professional Development Program in Private Schools of Karachi <p>This research study aimed at exploring the perceptions of school leaders (principals) regarding the effectiveness of continuous professional development programs in private schools in Karachi. The main purpose of the study was to recognize and make a comparison between the perceptions of school leaders (principals) regarding the effectiveness of the CPD program in perceptiveness of four major variables i.e. teachers’ methods of teaching, classroom management skills, methods of assessments, and performance of the students. The population of the study comprised of 12000 registered private secondary school principals in Karachi (Board of secondary Education, Karachi). The sample of this research study was comprised of 110 principals. A questionnaire was used to gather the relevant information from the participants. It consisted of 22 items and drawn from literature and based on the expertise of the researcher. The researcher administered the questionnaire and explained each item to the respondents. Data was analyzed through SPSS (19) software. Major hypotheses were tested through t-test &amp; ANOVA. On the basis of findings, it was concluded that respondents had shown no discernible difference in behavior even both males and females regarding all variables. Therefore, it was concluded that the school leaders had positive perceptions about the effectiveness of the CPD program from the perspective of methods of teaching, classroom management, and methods of assessment and outcome of students.</p> Shakeela Khurram Rabia Shaikh Laiba Larik Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 90 105 Impact Of Personal Factors On Individual Readiness For Organizational Change Among Academia In Balochistan <p>This study looks into how prepared employees are for organisational change and the impact specific personal aspects have on that readiness. The study was conducted in Balochistan’s higher education institutions i.e. universities using a survey method of research. The population of the study consisted of university teachers of Balochistan. Criterion sampling technique was used to recruit the sample of 101 university teachers. Data were collected through self reported close ended consolidated questionnaire which included various adopted scales. Data was analyzed through SPSS V20 using various techniques. The findings showed that the personal factors like employees’ previous experience of organizational change, employee’s trust in organizaion’s management, their social relationships at workplace and their commitment towards their organization have a significant impact on their readiness for organizational change. The study recommends that employees perform their best when provided with suitable work environment. Employees’ participation in change management and implementation of change be made possible.</p> Latif Ullah Shahida Sajjad Zubaida Abdull Sattar Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 106 118 Prevalence of Academically Honest Behaviors at Higher Education Level for Educational Development OF Visually Impaired Students <p>Academically honest behaviors in higher education are essential to maintain for visually impaired students. This study intended to seek the prevalence of academically honest behaviors among visually impaired students for their educational development at higher education level. The research was quantitative and descriptive. The study sample included 79 teachers from special education colleges of Punjab. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect data through a self-developed structured questionnaire. The experts’ opinion (N=02) and pilot testing technique ensured the instrument's validity&amp; reliability. The data was analyzed through SPSS version 21 for descriptive and inferential statistical. Frequencies were drawn to reach towards results. The findings revealed majority of respondents reported that visually impaired students do trust their classmates for help during exam. The study recommended special education department should review assessment and evaluation procedures for teachers and students with visual impairment in their colleges to promote true academically honest behaviors for a quality teaching &amp; learning process.</p> Kashif Iqbal Samina Ashraf Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 119 135 Procedural Requirements: Storied Experiences of Doctoral Students after Submission of Dissertation <p>The aim of the present qualitative study was to understand the feelings, storied experiences, and response of doctoral students who had been waiting for evaluation reports for a long time to complete their doctoral degrees. The study was conducted in public and private sector universities of Pakistan in the Province of Punjab. Twenty doctoral students who were purposively selected from the Province of Punjab Pakistan shared the meaning-making of their storied experiences after submission of the doctoral dissertation. Narrative and phenomenological inquiry was used. The anecdotal stories of doctoral students revealed personal experiences that seemed common to most of the doctoral students. A narrative of each doctoral student's experiences disclosed the subjective meaning of his or her concerns after submitting the doctoral dissertation. The data collected from the semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were analysed through a thematic analysis approach and was explained in detail. The major themes that emerged from the study were the procedural complexities, perceived negligence and sense of disempowerment. The study has implications for reforms of doctoral degree process and completion.</p> Farooq Ahmad Syed Abdul Waheed Nadia Gilani Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 136 146 Prediction of the effects of social capital on job performance through social media in Balochistan, Pakistan <p><em>At present, job performance (JP) has become a significant issue of organizational success. The present paper examines the effects of social capital [bridging social capital (BGSC) and bonding social capital (BDSC)] on job satisfaction (JS) and job performance through social media in Balochistan, Pakistan. The study used a quantitative approach by collecting cross-sectional data through a questionnaire. The researcher adopted convenience. The respondents of the study are individuals using social media in their workplaces. Finally, the study utilizes study 406 valid samples. By employing equation modeling (SEM), the path analysis, the results demonstrate a positive and significant effect of BGSC</em> <em>and BDSC on JS and JP. Finally, JS and JP are positively and significantly associated. The present study's findings further guide individuals to understand the role of social media in the workplace, specifically in performance enhancement. In light of the results, the policymakers would further concentrate on the benefits of social media in organizations by improving several activities, such as meetings must be organized, appointments must be scheduled, documents must be sent, and coworkers must communicate about work events.</em></p> <p> </p> Nazia Barkat Hamadullah Kakepoto Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 147 156 Technology-Driven Learning in Nursing Education: Transforming the Learning Landscape through WhatsApp Groups and Zoom-Based Learning Materials <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate students' perceptions of using WhatsApp Group and Zoom-based learning materials in nursing education at the National Institute of Child Health College of Nursing and the New Life College of Nursing, Karachi. The application of an applied online&nbsp;learning system by teachers is the primary focus of this study. Data was collected through questionnaires that used a Likert scale to examine students' perceptions of the adopted learning technique. The point system included both recommended and un-recommended points. To capture the students' perspectives and ideas, the data were analyzed descriptively using a percentage scoring table ranging from 1 to 100.</p> <p>The study's findings shed light on the efficacy of this technology-based learning strategy in the lessons. The installed WhatsApp Group and Zoom-based learning resources were universally regarded as valuable and useful by the pupils. The average impression score of 86, determined from the six components of the learning materials (comfort, content, efficient usage, language, clarity, and entertainment), suggests that students responded positively.</p> <p>This study demonstrates the value of using WhatsApp Groups and Zoom into nursing education. The findings show that students regard this technology-based learning strategy as effective and helpful. Educators can revolutionize nursing education by utilizing the potential of digital platforms and interactive education, promoting increased engagement, material comprehension, and student happiness. These findings add to the expanding body of research on new instructional approaches in nursing, paving the path for future advances in nursing education.</p> Shabana Nazir Suhail Ahmed Solangi Nazmeen Umer Irfan Ali Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 157 164 Perceptions of SMEs Regarding the Knowledge-Based Economy in the Context of Higher Education <p>Developing nations Executives from many companies have varying views on the knowledge-based economy in higher education. Industry, geography, and experience may affect these impressions. Thus, this study examines SMEs' executives' knowledge-based economy and higher education views. Higher education and the knowledge-based economy share several themes. The study used qualitative methodologies and semi-structured interviews with 15 manufacturing SMEs to understand the research problem.</p> <p>The study found that SMEs recognize the importance of knowledge, innovation, and higher education in driving economic growth. However, concerns were raised about the suitability and accessibility of higher education programs to SMEs' needs. The study suggests that higher education institutions should work more closely with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to understand their needs and tailor programs to meet them, especially in adopting modern and skill-oriented curricula and technologies. Most SMEs also believe that government funding and incentives are vital for promoting the knowledge-based economy using the triple helix model, particularly in light of ongoing economic and energy crises.</p> Hussain Shah Syed Mazoor Ahmed Khalid Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 165 180 Social Cohesion and Peace: Exploring Teachers’ Verdicts on Single National Curriculum (SNC) in Primary Schools <p>Purpose__ The study intended to explore teachers’ perceptions about the role of Single National Curriculum (SNC) in building social cohesion and peace among students.&nbsp;</p> <p>Methodology__ Keeping in view the nature of the study phenomenology as research design was used under a qualitative approach. Private primary school teachers in tehsil Sargodha were the population of the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from 25 teachers (N=25). Semi structured interview consisted of twenty (20) questions was used to get responses from the teachers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and eventually, thematic analysis of the interview’s text was used for analysis.&nbsp;</p> <p>Findings__ The study found that implementation of the SNC was a good step to promote social cohesion and peace among students. Teachers’ perception revealed that SNC is a multi-dimensional curriculum and has more religious philosophical reflections, which may have a great impact on students’ behavior. Moreover, respondents believed that along with teaching content we have to play an important role in promoting social cohesion and peace by practicing moral lessons. Majority of the respondents reported that the SNC enhances critical thinking and builds friendships among students. The results showed that proper implementation of SNC in the private sector is still lacking.&nbsp;</p> <p>Recommendations__ Hence, it was recommended that to achieve more social cohesion and peace through the initiative of SNC; Ministry of Education should work to implement it properly. It was also recommended that instead of focusing only on rote learning; teacher should engage students in activities which are given in the content of SNC to further promote social cohesion and peace among students.</p> Mehwish Riaz Muhammad Uzair ul Hassan Iram Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 JEHR Journal of Education And Humanities Research, University of Balochistan 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 15 1 181 190